Emulsifiers include compounds with a completely different chemical structure, and therefore with diverse mechanisms of action, and in turn different effects in dough and bread . They have been used as food additives for many years in Europe and America since the 1940s and were approved for food use in the USA, in the 1960s. In these conditions, the objective of the European Commission Directive was attained after 100âh (AV = 5.9âmgâKOH/g) but even lower values can be reached at longer times (after 125âh the AV was 4.9âmgâKOH/g). None of the twelve remaining lipases were able to produce a PGPR with an acid value lower that 6âmgâKOH/g, which is the requirement of the European Commission Directive , although we considered that, after applying appropriate optimization procedures, one or more of these enzymes might be able to efficiently catalyze the enzymatic synthesis of PGPR .The twelve chosen lipases were all from microbial sources, being some 1,3 specific and others ârandomâ lipases. It has been described in the literature that the enzymatic synthesis of estolides can only be successfully catalyzed by lipases that lack 1,3 positional selectivity [68, 69, 92], so that lipases from Chromobacterium viscosum and from Pseudomonas (which are ârandomâ lipases and show the best results, Figure 16(d)) should be capable, in theory at least, of catalyzing the first step of the enzymatic synthesis of PGPR. Zařazeno do skupiny: Emulgátory Živočišný původ. Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR), E476, is an emulsifier made from castor beans which reduces the viscosity of chocolate and similar coatings and compounds. The production of cyclic compounds similar to dioxane, which undergo further polymerization. The chemical structure is shown in Figure 6. PGPR was found to be 98% digested by rats and utilized as a source of energy superior to starch and nearly equivalent to groundnut oil. It cannot be decomposed in cold water, can be dispersed. Moreover, to enhance dehydration, a current of dry nitrogen was passed through the reaction mixture for a period of 7 hours, and after that, maintenance of the vacuum (160âmmâHg). The use of dried enzyme powders, although often reported in laboratory scale experiments, is generally unsuitable for large scale processing in nonaqueous media. This case affects not so much the chocolate industry directly but the ancillary confectionary industry. DynaVisc 888 HV (4)ââEsterification of Polyricinoleic Acid with PolyglycerolThe final stage of the preparation involves heating an appropriate amount of polyglycerol with the polyricinoleic acid. It is often found in combination with E322 in chocolates. Polymers of epichlorohydrin (or glycidol) are prepared by methods similar to those of other oxirane monomers. It serves to produce better quality chocolate reducing cocoa oil quantity in chocolate industry. It is a highly lipophilic emulsifier with a low Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance. It can be observed that the lowest acid values were reached when lipases from Pseudomonas (3 enzymes) and Chromobacterium viscosum were used. Additives are needed to ensure processed food remains in a good condition throughout its journey from the factory to the shop and to the consumer at home. However, several studies revealed that Candida rugosa lipase was unsuitable for PGPR synthesis, and therefore others lipases were assayed for this purpose .A further twenty lipases from different sources were used, and the corresponding experiments of PGPR synthesis were performed. This food additive is a viscous amber coloured liquid. This allows a more even coating of confectionary pieces while reducing the consumption of expensive cocoa butter in the recipe. In the United States, food additives are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. Other forms of cocoa butter crystals are not present in fat bloom. Therefore, the three chosen lipases were immobilized by physical adsorption onto an anion exchange resin (Lewatit MonoPlus MP 64). APPEARANCE : These values correspond with equilibrium water contents of 3600 and 1000âppm, respectively, which are the cause of the discrepancies in the results obtained in the open-air reactor. The safety of PGPR consumption has been widely studied. Known chemical methods for preparing this emulsifier involve long reaction times and high operating temperatures, which adversely affect the quality of the final product leading to problems of coloration and odors that could make it inadvisable for the food industry. This is called fat migration. Product DescriptionPolyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), E476, is an emulsifier made from glycerol and fatty acids (usually from castor bean, but also from soybean oil). Water plays multiple roles in lipase-catalyzed esterifications performed in nonconventional media. It is therefore difficult to run the refractive index test at the kettle, and this often requires that the instrument is used in a laboratory setting, usually in a quality control laboratory, which is both time consuming and inconvenient. The reaction takes place immediately following the preparation of the latter and in the same vessel, while the charge is still hot. If the chocolate is stored in a room where the temperature fluctuates near the melting temperature of the stable Î² crystals, two additional types of fat bloom may form. Adequate flow properties can be achieved by the addition of PGPR (see Figure 8), which improves the flow characteristics of molten chocolate by reducing the âCasson yield valueâ (which represents the viscosity of chocolate at low shear rate). Exposure: Polyglycerol polyricinoleate is permitted only in cocoa-based confectionary, including chocolate up to 5 g/kg and in some fat-products up to 4 g/kg. The author wishes to express her deep gratitude to the members of the research group âAnÃ¡lisis y SimulaciÃ³n de Procesos QuÃmicos, BioquÃmicosy de Membranaâ, Universidad de Murcia, EspaÃ±a, without whose knowledge and assistance this article would not have been successful. It's also known as Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid 476, E476, Polyglycerol polyricinoleate Glyceran esters of condensed castor oil fatty acids, Polyglycerol esters of polycondensed fatty acids from castor oil, PGPR; Condensed castor oil esters, glycer. If chocolate is not tempered, the unstable forms of cocoa butter crystal will form, most notability the Î²' and Î± forms. Obviously, it would be very convenient if the same lipase could serve as catalyst for the two reaction steps. In these conditions, the water content in the reactor can be adequately controlled (3000âppm), and an estolide with a high degree of polymerisation (AVâ40âmgâKOH/g) can be obtained . It makes the process easier. After the cocoa butter hardens, these unstable forms will slowly change their forms to the stable Î² form. Due to the innocuous nature of these products, formulators continue to develop technologies that incorporate polyglycerol esters in a widening array of applications. These are listed in Table 3 . This work was partially support by a grant CTQ2011-24091, MICINN, Spain. I. Kinetics of estolide formation and decomposition,â, K. T. Achaya, âChemical derivatives of castor oil,â, R. Tenore, âProcess for the direct manufacture of polyglycerol polyricinoleate,â, A. Manresa, A. Bódalo, J. L. Gómez et al., âMethod for obtaining polyglycerol polyricinoleate,â, A. Bódalo, J. Bastida, M. F. Máximo, M. C. Montiel, and M. D. Murcia, âEnzymatic biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid estolides,â, A. Bódalo, J. Bastida, M. F. Máximo, M. C. Montiel, M. Gómez, and M. D. Murcia, âProduction of ricinoleic acid estolide with free and immobilised lipase from, A. Bódalo, J. Bastida, M. F. Máximo, M. C. Montiel, M. D. Murcia, and S. Ortega, âInfluence of the operating conditions on lipase-catalysed synthesis of ricinoleic acid estolides in solvent-free systems,â, A. Bódalo, J. Bastida, M. F. Máximo, M. C. Montiel, M. Gómez, and S. Ortega, âScreening and selection of lipases for the enzymatic production of polyglycerol polyricinoleate,â, J. L. Gómez, J. Bastida, M. F. Máximo, M. C. Montiel, M. D. Murcia, and S. Ortega, âSolvent-free polyglycerol polyricinoleate synthesis mediated by lipase from, N. N. Gandhi, âApplications of lipase,â, D. G. Hayes and R. Kleiman, âLipase-catalyzed synthesis and properties of estolides and their esters,â, D. G. Hayes, âThe catalytic activity of lipases toward hydroxyl fatty acids. Therefore, the substrate mass ratio (PR/PG-3) in all the experiments was maintained constant at a value of 15, which means that three of the five hydroxyl groups of the polyglycerol could be esterified.Other optimal reaction conditions were determined: 40Â°C and no additional water added to the reactor at the beginning of the reaction but only that soaked in the immobilized derivative . These results suggest that immobilisation had a beneficial effect on the activity and stability of both lipases .Lipase from Rhizopus arrhizus was selected for PGPR production because lower amount of enzyme is required to achieve the same final acid value . Studies on fat bloom indicate that the bloom consists of large, single cocoa butter crystals or collections of crystals of the stable Î² form of cocoa butter. The main applications of the emulsifiers are based on their ability to interact at the interface between phases. The chemical procedures above describe have the disadvantage of requiring very long reaction times, involving high energy costs. Taken on the whole, however, these weight average-related specifications do indicate correct chemical structure, but with limited accuracy. E 476: Polyglycerol polyricinoleate . In 1969, the 13th report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) set a temporary human acceptable daily intake (ADI) for PGPR of 3.75âmg/kg body weight with a request for more biological studies. Emulsifiers are essential components of many industrial food recipes (see Table 1), whether they are added for the purpose of water/oil (W/O) emulsification in its simplest form, for textural and organoleptic modification, for shelf life enhancement, or as complexing or stabilizing agents for other components such as starch or protein [9â13]. E476 is a food additive used to make foods/sauces smoother and blend easier. 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